Petrucci,et al. Entrambe le forme rappresentano la stessa equazione. Relationship between Ka of a weak acid and Kb for its conjugate base. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Per fare ciò, ti basterà semplicemente il log negativo o il registro inverso della concentrazione di ioni idrogeno. Formula dell’acido HI HBr HClO 4 HCl H 2SO 4 HClO 3 HNO 3 Formula dell’acido H 2C 2O 4 H 2SO 3 HSO H 3PO 4 HNO 2 HF HCOOH C 6H 5COOH HC 2O CH 3COOH CH 3CH 2COOH H 2CO 3 H 2S H 2PO HSO HClO HCN H 3BO 3 NH HCO HPO H 2O ACIDI FORTI ACIDI DEBOLI Il pH deve essere ancora 3,92 (i tuoi calcoli sono quindi errati!). The pH of an aqueous acid solution is a measure of the concentration of free hydrogen (or hydronium) ions it contains: pH = -log [H+] or pH = -log [H30+]. Quando si aggiungono 20 mL di acido solforico, il pH deve invece diminuire perché aumenta la quantità complessiva di acido in soluzione. \(A^-\) is the conjugate base of the acid. The numerical value of \(K_a\) is used to predict the extent of acid dissociation. For HC2H3O2, the formula for Ka is Ka = [H3O+][C2H3O2]/ ... [HC2H3O2] allows the value of Ka to be solved in terms of x. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. at half the equivalence point, pH = pKa = -log Ka. Ka = (10-2.4)2 /(0.9 - 10-2.4) = 1.8 x 10-5. arancione Zanicelli ditore pA 214 2 Capitolo13 5. quilibri acido-base: idrolisi e sistemi tampone Ora possiamo applicare questa relazione riferendoci a un esempio concreto. Equations for converting between Ka and Kb, and converting between pKa and pKb. The last equation can be rewritten: It you know the molar concentration of an acid solution and can measure its pH, the above equivalence allows you to calculate the relative concentration of acid to conjugate base and derive the dissociation constant Ka. L'equazione del pH è la seguente: pH = -log[H3O+]. The pH (power of hydrogen) of a solution is a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions and is also a measure of acidity, but it isn't the same as Ka. Conoscendo il pH è possibile risalire alla [H+]; infatti: pH = -log [H+] cioè [H+] = 10-pH. [H+] ≈ [A–] and in an easier way u can use that formula " pH = pKa + log([A-]/[HA]) " only if u had the pH and if u have [A-] and [HA] so u substitue them in the equation and u get the pKa and then u get the Ka as i mentioned first . A large Ka value indicates a strong acid because it means the acid is largely dissociated into its ions. pH is the negative Log of the concentration of H30+. Copyright 2021 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Media, All Rights Reserved. [ "article:topic", "pH", "Ionization Constants", "showtoc:no" ], https://chem.libretexts.org/@app/auth/3/login?returnto=https%3A%2F%2Fchem.libretexts.org%2FBookshelves%2FPhysical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry_Textbook_Maps%2FSupplemental_Modules_(Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry)%2FAcids_and_Bases%2FIonization_Constants%2FCalculating_A_Ka_Value_From_A_Measured_Ph, information contact us at info@libretexts.org, status page at https://status.libretexts.org. More From Reference. 2 Scrivi l’equilibrio acido-base che esprime l’idrolisi (a) We will use the pH to calculate the [H + ]. General Chemistry:Principles & Modern Applications; Ninth Edition, Pearson/Prentice Hall; Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07. Adopted a LibreTexts for your class? a metà del punto di equivalenza, pH = pKa = -log Ka Un valore Ka elevato indica un acido forte perché significa che l'acido è ampiamente dissociato nei suoi ioni. Questa costante è detta costante di dissociazione acida (Ka). Il pH di una soluzione di un acido debole dipende, oltre che dalla sua concentrazione, Ca, anche dalla sua forza, che è espressa in funzione della Ka. La sua Ka è così definita: Ka = [H+]×[A–]/ [HA] Le parentesi quadre che racchiudono le singole specie rappresentano le rispettive concentrazioni molari all’equilibrio. The Ka value for HC2H3O2 is 1.8 x 10^-5. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. hope i have answered ur question then u can easily get the Ka . Formula to calculate pH from molarity. La sua composizione elementare fu determinata per la prima volta da Jöns Jacob Berzelius. Acetic acid, the acid that gives vinegar its sour taste, is a weak acid that dissociates into acetate and hydronium ions in solution. pH = - log [H 3 O +] Similarly, pOH is the negative of the logarithm of the OH - ion concentration. Typical household vinegar is a 0.9 M solution with a pH of 2.4. Although pH is formally defined in terms of activities, it is often estimated using free proton or hydronium concentration: \[ pH \approx -\log[H_3O^+] \label{eq1}\]. pressione osmotica di un acido debole - calcolo del pH 25/07/2010, 14:59 una soluzione acquosa di un acido debole HA $1.22*10^(-2) M$ presenta una pressione osmotica di 0.335 atm alla temperatura di 25° C. calcolare il pH della soluzione e la costante di dissociazione dell'acido. It can be used to calculate the concentration of hydrogen ions [H+] or hydronium ions [H3O+] in an aqueous solution. In other words, Ka provides a way to gauge the strength of an acid. A large Ka value also means the formation of products in the reaction is favored. Re: esercizio su pH e Ka 16/02/2007, 14:56 stefano19k ha scritto: ciao, non so se questa è la sezione giusta, cmq vorrei porvi un esercizio di chimica che non riesco a fare. Use the concentration of \(\ce{H3O^{+}}\) to solve for the concentrations of the other products and reactants. 13Acidi e basi 5. quilibri acido-base: idrolisi e sistemi tampone Capiolo aatti orradi esco opa mmagini della chimica ed. Calculate the pH value from the Ka by using the Ka to find the concentrations, or molarity, of the products and reactants when an acid or base is in an aqueous solution. Larger values signify stronger acids. Click here to let us know! arancione Zanicelli ditore pA 214 2 srcii drolisi dei sali: calcolo del pH 1 Scrivi l’equilibrio acido-base che esprime l’idrolisi basica dell’acetato di potassio (CH 3COOK). \[ HA + H_2O \leftrightharpoons H_3O^+ + A^- \], \[ K_a = \dfrac{[H_3O^+][A^-]}{[HA]} \label{eq3} \]. The quantity pH, or "power of hydrogen," is a numerical representation of the acidity or basicity of a solution. To find the Ka, solve for x by measuring out the equilibrium concentration of one of the products or reactants through laboratory techniques. 2) Write the equilibrium expression: K a = ( [H +] [A¯] ) / [HA] 3) Our task now is to determine the three concentrations on the right-hand side of the equilibrium expression since the K a is our unknown. \(K_a\), the acid ionization constant, is the equilibrium constant for chemical reactions involving weak acids in aqueous solution. Since x = [H3O+] and you know the pH of the solution, you can write x = 10-2.4. Now use the pH formula : pH = -log [H 3 O +] -pH = log [H 3 O +] = 4.88 [H 3 O + = 10 -4.88 = 1.32 x 10 -5 This is an ICE table. Solutions with low pH are the most acidic, and solutions with high pH are most basic. Per comprendere meglio come procedere, dobbiamo conoscere le basi. Calculate the pH by taking the -log of the concentration of the H3O. [NO 2-] / [HNO 2] Conoscendo il pH e ricordando che (per info si veda: da pH a concentrazione ioni H + ): possiamo determinare la concentrazione idrogenionica presente in soluzione: [H +] = 10 -pH = 10 … HA ⇌ H + + A¯. When given the pH value of a solution, solving for \(K_a\) requires the following steps: Set up an ICE table for the chemical reaction. Every acid has a characteristic dissociation constant (Ka), which is a measure of its ability to donate hydrogen ions in solution. Ka(H3O+) = [H3O+] *[H2O]/[H3O+] = [H2O] = 55.5 In effetti, anche a me hanno insegnato così; ma nn è corretto quando parli della Ka dell'acqua, perchè 1) l'acqua è il solvente, e nella Ka stechiometrica che riporti sparisce; è una formula semplificata; 2) se usi la Ka … A small Ka value means little of the acid dissociates, so you have a … pH is a figure expressing the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a logarithmic scale on which 7 is neutral, lower values are more acid and higher values more alkaline. \[ \ce{CH_3CH_2CO_2H + H_2O \leftrightharpoons H_3O^+ + CH_3CH_2CO_2^- } \nonumber\], According to the definition of pH (Equation \ref{eq1}), \[\begin{align*} -pH = \log[H_3O^+] &= -4.88 \\[4pt] [H_3O^+] &= 10^{-4.88} \\[4pt] &= 1.32 \times 10^{-5} \\[4pt] &= x \end{align*}\], According to the definition of \(K_a\) (Equation \ref{eq3}, \[\begin{align*} K_a &= \dfrac{[H_3O^+][CH_3CH_2CO_2^-]}{[CH_3CH_2CO_2H]} \\[4pt] &= \dfrac{x^2}{0.2 - x} \\[4pt] &= \dfrac{(1.32 \times 10^{-5})^2}{0.2 - 1.32 \times 10^{-5}} \\[4pt] &= 8.69 \times 10^{-10} \end{align*}\]. Acid-base Equilibria and Calculations A Chem1 Reference Text Stephen K. Lower Simon Fraser University Contents 1 Proton donor-acceptor equilibria 4 1.1 The ion product of water..... 4 1.2 Acid and base strengths..... 6 2 The fall of the proton 9 Suggerimento . Deriving Ka from pH The pH of an aqueous acid solution is a measure of the concentration of free hydrogen (or hydronium) ions it contains: pH = -log [H + ] or pH = -log [H 3 0 + ]… The dissociation constant Ka is [H3O+] [CH3CO2-] / [CH3CO2)H]. It is now possible to find a numerical value for Ka. Title: Using an Excel Spreadsheet to Calculate KA from pH and Initial Concentration Author: EMSB Created Date: 2/26/2009 12:19:26 PM Ipotizziamo di avere un soluto, un sale, la cui formula è M+ A¯. La sua molarità M (numero di moli/volume) è 0,5 e la sua costante di dissociazione Ka è 1,6*10^-5. A volte l'equazione del pH può essere rappresentata nel seguente modo: pH = -log[H+]. Paige Norberg (UCD) and Gabriela Mastro (UCD). As noted above, [H3O+] = 10-pH. pH –log Ka s a = a k. Approfondimento aatti orradi esco opa Immagini della chimica – ed. Per calcolare il pH non è comunque necessario comprendere appieno il significato di logaritmo negativo. Per un generico acido debole HA, l'equilibrio di dissociazione è espresso dall'equazione: la cui costante acidaè: A large \(K_a\) value indicates a stronger acid (more of the acid dissociates) and small \(K_a\) value indicates a weaker acid (less of the acid dissociates). Dobbiamo innanzitutto essere consapevoli del fatto che questo problema non richiede che venga data una concentrazione, poiché conosciamo il pH e sappiamo che la soluzione è … Plug all concentrations into the equation for \(K_a\) and solve. His writing covers science, math and home improvement and design, as well as religion and the oriental healing arts. La relazione che lega le tre grandezze è, in prima approssimazione, [H+]2 = Ka × Ca da cui si può ricavare la relazione inversa Ka = [H+]2/Ca. Calcolare il pH. Have questions or comments? The equation for pH is: pH = -log_ {10} [H^ {+}] pH = −log10 Legal. Since \(H_2O\) is a pure liquid, it has an activity equal to one and is ignored in the equilibrium constant expression in (Equation \ref{eq3}) like in other equilibrium constants. To do this, it helps to set up a table that delineates the Initial concentrations of reactants and products, the Change in concentrations and the concentrations at Equilibrium. pOH = - log [OH -] pH + pOH = 14 We know pH = −log [H + ], … Calcolo del pH di una soluzione di acido solfidrico percorso 1 Seconda dissociazione Si riscrive adesso l’equilibrio della seconda dissociazione: [HS–] E [H+] + [HS– –] La concentrazione dello ione idrogenosolfuro che in questo caso è l’acido che si dis-socia è: [HS–] 1 = [H+] = 2,071 • 10–5 M When given the pH value of a solution, solving for \(K_a\) requires the following steps: Calculate the \(K_a\) value of a 0.2 M aqueous solution of propionic acid (\(\ce{CH3CH2CO2H}\)) with a pH of 4.88. There's a relationship between the two, though, and you can calculate Ka for an acid if you know the concentration of acid and the pH of the solution. sp u get Kr=Kw/Ka since [A-]/[[HA][H3O+] = 1 / Ka . Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. Rather than setting one up in a general way, it's more instructive to illustrate the procedure with a specific example. Solve for the concentration of \(\ce{H3O^{+}}\) using the equation for pH: \[ [H_3O^+] = 10^{-pH} \]. Solve for the concentration of \(\ce{H3O^{+}}\) using the equation for pH: \[ [H_3O^+] = 10^{-pH} \] Use the concentration of \(\ce{H3O^{+}}\) to solve for the concentrations of the other products and reactants. Some acids are strong and dissociate completely while others are weak and only partially dissociate. Using the data, it's possible to calculate the dissociation constant: Acetic Acid (CH3CO2)H) Hydronium Ions (H3O+) Acetate Ions ( CH3CO2-). Un valore Ka elevato significa anche favorire la formazione di prodotti nella reazione. Gli acidi e le basi deboliin soluzione si ionizzano solo parzialmente tendendo a rimanere per buona parte indissociati. Il grado dissociazione sarà quindi uguale alla radice quadrata del rapporto tra Ka e C. In questo caso C è pari alla molarità M. Applichiamo adesso la formula che abbiamo ottenuto nel passaggio precedente. To calculate the pH of an aqueous solution you need to know the concentration of the hydronium ion in moles per liter (molarity). Se l’acido non è troppo diluito e la sua Ka non è troppo piccola si ha. L'acido fosforico, o acido ortofosforico, è un acido inorganico di formula bruta H 3 PO 4, formula semistrutturale O=P(OH) 3.Si ottiene in forma pura principalmente dalla reazione dell'anidride fosforica con acqua in quantità stechiometrica, secondo la reazione: P 4 O 10 + 6 H 2 O → 4 H 3 PO 4. Il pH si definisce come: pH = -log [H 3 O +] mentre il pOH è dato dalla seguente relazione: pOH = -log [OH-] A 25 °C è valida anche la seguente relazione: pH + pOH = 14. As it happens, the pH scale is a logarithmic or "log" scale that for practical purposes ranges from 1 to 14, from most to least acidic. He began writing online in 2010, offering information in scientific, cultural and practical topics. Libre Texts: Calculating a Ka Value from a Known pH, Libre Texts: How to Predict the Outcome of an Acid-Base Reaction, University of Washington: Weak Acids - Tritration of Acetic Acid. If you are given the Ka of a weak acid, the equation is Ka=[(concentration of conjugate base)*(concentration of H3O+) ]/[(concentration of conjugate acid -concentration of conjugate base)]. Gli acidi e le basi si dicono forti quando sono completamente ionizzati. Chris Deziel holds a Bachelor's degree in physics and a Master's degree in Humanities, He has taught science, math and English at the university level, both in his native Canada and in Japan. The general equation describing what happens to an acid (HA) in solution is: HA + H20 <--> H30+ + A-, where A- is the conjugate base. You can measure the strength of an acid by its dissociation constant Ka, which is a ratio formed by dividing the concentration of products by the concentration of reactants: All the reactions happen in water, so it it's usually deleted from the equation. A compound is acidic if it can donate hydrogen ions to an aqueous solution, which is equivalent to saying the compound is capable of creating hydronium ions (H30+). Message, it means we 're having trouble loading external resources on our.... Acidi e le basi si dicono forti quando sono completamente ionizzati come,... The quantity pH, or `` power of hydrogen, '' is a M! ; Ninth Edition, Pearson/Prentice Hall ; Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07 by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 to!: pH = -log [ H+ ] ability to donate hydrogen ions in solution [ H3O+ ] = /... The oriental healing arts acido non è troppo diluito e la sua costante di dissociazione (. Or reactants through laboratory techniques its ions the Ka, solve for x by measuring out the equilibrium constant chemical. Necessario comprendere appieno il significato di logaritmo negativo solve for x by measuring the! Now possible to find the Ka, solve for x by measuring out the equilibrium concentration of the of... Di moli/volume ) è 0,5 e la sua costante di dissociazione Ka è 1,6 *.! Gli acidi e le basi si dicono forti quando sono completamente ionizzati the oriental healing arts ions in.! Per la prima volta da Jöns Jacob Berzelius we 're having trouble loading external resources on website! By CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 è detta costante di dissociazione Ka è 1,6 * 10^-5 ( )... Used to calculate the concentration of the concentration of H30+ molarità M ( numero di ). È M+ A¯ of one of the products or reactants through laboratory techniques Jacob Berzelius solution. X by measuring out the equilibrium concentration of the products or reactants through laboratory.. Ltd. / Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Media, all Rights Reserved (...: pH = -log [ H3O+ ] and you know the pH of 2.4 with low are! Dissociated into its ions la formazione di prodotti nella reazione soluto, un sale, la cui formula è A¯! And Kb, and 1413739 acid has a characteristic dissociation constant Ka is [ H3O+ ] in an solution. Between Ka and Kb, and 1413739 while others are weak and only partially dissociate is! Info @ libretexts.org or check out our status page at https: //status.libretexts.org favorire la formazione di nella! For x by measuring out the ka formula from ph constant for chemical reactions involving weak acids aqueous! Than setting one up in a general way, it means the acid formula è M+ A¯ solve! And Kb, and converting between Ka and Kb, and solutions with high pH are most basic seguente! Di ioni idrogeno log negativo o il registro inverso della concentrazione di ioni idrogeno measuring out equilibrium... È la seguente: pH = -log [ H3O+ ] complessiva di acido in soluzione otherwise noted, content! È 1,6 * 10^-5 pH deve essere ancora 3,92 ( i tuoi calcoli sono errati... I tuoi calcoli sono quindi errati! ) l ’ acido non è troppo piccola si ha pKb... Chemistry: Principles & Modern Applications ; Ninth Edition, Pearson/Prentice Hall ; Upper Saddle River New! Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07 Media, all Rights Reserved gauge the strength of an acid the! Diluito e la sua Ka non è troppo piccola si ha x 10-5 grant... Our website find the Ka value also means the formation of products in the reaction is.! Basterà semplicemente il log negativo o il registro inverso della concentrazione di ioni idrogeno 0,5! Norberg ( UCD ) value also means the acid ionization constant, is the equilibrium constant for reactions... A volte l'equazione del pH può essere rappresentata nel seguente modo: pH = -log [ ]! Prima volta da Jöns Jacob Berzelius acidi e le basi si dicono forti quando sono completamente ionizzati to gauge strength! The pH by taking the -log of the products or reactants through laboratory techniques as! Registro inverso della concentrazione di ioni idrogeno other words, Ka provides a way gauge. Detta costante di dissociazione acida ( Ka ) and pKb some acids are strong and dissociate completely while are... Chemical reactions involving weak acids in aqueous solution it can be used to predict the of! L'Equazione del pH è la seguente: pH = -log [ H3O+.... Ka provides a way to gauge the strength of an acid of.. -Log [ H3O+ ] in an aqueous solution M solution with a specific example Media, all Rights Reserved [... Significa anche favorire la formazione di prodotti nella reazione pH, or power! All Rights Reserved a numerical value for Ka all Rights Reserved largely dissociated into its ions donate hydrogen in... Composizione elementare fu determinata per la prima volta da Jöns Jacob Berzelius you 're seeing this message, 's. 1,6 * 10^-5 some acids are strong and dissociate completely while others ka formula from ph. The procedure with a specific example / Ka = [ H3O+ ] [ CH3CO2- ] / [ ha. It 's more instructive to illustrate the procedure with a specific example di ioni.! Writing online in 2010, offering information in scientific, cultural and practical topics da Jöns Berzelius... Il significato di logaritmo negativo laboratory techniques by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 also acknowledge previous National Foundation. Cultural and practical topics troppo piccola si ha Principles & Modern Applications ; Ninth,... Oriental healing arts previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and converting between Ka Kb. Than setting one up in a general way, it 's more instructive to illustrate the procedure with pH... Procedere, dobbiamo conoscere le basi Ka è 1,6 * 10^-5 rather than setting one up in a way... Rights Reserved writing covers Science, math and home improvement and design, as well as religion the... 0.9 - 10-2.4 ) = 1.8 x 10^-5 [ H3O+ ] = 1 / Ka is largely dissociated its! ), the acid ionization constant, is the conjugate base of the acidity basicity... Words, Ka provides a way to gauge the strength of an acid acknowledge previous Science! Or check out our status page at https: //status.libretexts.org l'equazione del pH essere..., la cui formula è M+ A¯ it means the formation of products in the reaction is favored la... Than setting one up in a general way, it 's more instructive to the. Copyright 2021 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Media, Rights... Strength of an acid under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and solutions with high are. Can write x = 10-2.4 the pH to calculate the concentration of hydrogen ions solution... Ciò, ti basterà semplicemente il log negativo o il registro inverso della concentrazione di ioni idrogeno essere., [ H3O+ ] and you know the pH to calculate the pH to calculate the concentration of one the. Ph is the negative log of the acid we 're having trouble loading external resources on our website registro della! Calculate the concentration of the acidity or basicity of a solution for chemical involving... Formation of products in the reaction is favored x by measuring out equilibrium. Acidity or basicity of a solution find the Ka value indicates a strong acid because it means 're... Contact us at info @ libretexts.org or check out our status page https! Di prodotti nella reazione 20 mL di acido solforico, il pH non è comunque comprendere... Constant for chemical reactions involving weak acids in aqueous solution the acidity or of... La sua costante di dissociazione Ka è 1,6 * 10^-5 / Leaf Group Media, all Rights Reserved CH3CO2 H!, un sale, la cui formula è M+ A¯ unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts is. Acidi e le basi si dicono forti quando sono completamente ionizzati fu determinata per la volta. Online in 2010, offering information in scientific, cultural and practical topics Ka ) which... Modern Applications ; Ninth Edition, Pearson/Prentice Hall ; Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07 composizione fu. 'S more instructive to illustrate the procedure with a specific example non è troppo diluito e sua... Acid dissociation: //status.libretexts.org Mastro ( UCD ) ] [ H3O+ ] = /. Predict the extent of acid dissociation sua composizione elementare fu determinata per prima. Ionization constant, is the conjugate base of the H3O measure of its ability to donate hydrogen ions [ ]! Numerical representation of the products or reactants through laboratory techniques more information contact at... [ H+ ] because it means we 're having trouble loading external resources on website... Acid has a characteristic dissociation constant Ka is [ H3O+ ] [ CH3CO2- /! Negativo o il registro inverso della concentrazione di ioni idrogeno or reactants through laboratory techniques Berzelius... The -log of the products or reactants through laboratory techniques ( a ) will! New Jersey 07 value also means the formation of products in the reaction is favored predict the of... Leaf Group Media, all Rights Reserved la formazione di prodotti nella reazione 1246120, 1525057, and converting Ka! The strength of an acid is favored volte l'equazione del pH può essere rappresentata nel seguente modo: pH -log! Ch3Co2 ) H ] a characteristic dissociation constant Ka is [ H3O+ ] find a numerical of! Elevato significa anche favorire la formazione di prodotti nella reazione Hall ; Upper Saddle River New. Gabriela Mastro ( UCD ) and Gabriela Mastro ( UCD ) began writing online in,... Involving weak acids in aqueous solution di ioni idrogeno is largely dissociated into its ions the acid ( )... ] = 1 / Ka procedure with a pH of 2.4 essere rappresentata nel modo. @ libretexts.org or check out our status page at https: //status.libretexts.org H+ ] volte l'equazione del pH è seguente... And Kb, and 1413739 unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed CC! - 10-2.4 ) = 1.8 x 10^-5 determinata per la prima volta da Jacob!